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The Gens Constantinius theory

The Gens Constantinius theory
In this article, i am going to attempt to show just how almost "everything" contemporary historians and scholars have to say about traditional British history, is "wrong", completely misunderstood, and at times would appear to be completely made up.
I am going to begin with Caracius, who was the British rebel leader that led the revolt against the Roman recapture of Britain.
Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (died 293) was a military commander of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century. He was a Menapian from Belgic Gaul,[1] who usurped power in 286, during the Carausian Revolt, declaring himself emperor in Britain and northern Gaul (Imperium Britanniarum). He did this only 13 years after the Gallic Empire of the Batavian Postumus was ended in 273. He held power for seven years, fashioning the name "Emperor of the North" for himself, before being assassinated by his finance minister Allectus.
Link for photo
Carausius coins
Mocking Geoffrey of Mounmouth:
Now i am absolutely dumbstruck by the juvenile attack on Geoffrey of Monmouth, whom is mocked for his teaching that Carausius is a Briton of Humble birth who persuaded the Roman senate to give him a fleet to reconquer Britain with, before using the fleet to conquer Britain for himself.
Mediaeval legend
In Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1136) Carausius is a Briton of humble birth, who by his courage persuades the Roman Senate to give him command of a fleet to defend Britain from barbarian attack.
Contemporary history:
However, when weighing up Geoffrey's account with known contemporary history, the accounts are almost 100% identical, with the only thing missing, being that he was British.
He was a "Menapian".
Silly Geoffrey?
Carausius was of humble origin, a Menapian who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in northern Gaul in 286. This success, and his former occupation as a pilot, led to his appointment to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coasts of Armorica and Belgica. He was suspected of allowing pirates to carry out raids and collect loot before attacking them, then keeping captured treasure for himself, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor in Britain and northern Gaul.[2]
Only one problem with the criticisms from historians and scholars.
The Menapians were originally a British based Belgae tribe.
.[25] Later that year, while Caesar made his first expedition to Britain, he sent two of his legates and the majority of his army to the territories of the Menapii and Morini to keep them under control.[26] Once again, they retired to the woods, and the Romans burned their crops and settlements.[27]
Link for photo
Menapian dwelling
The next mocking of Geoffrey, is he supposedly attributes Carausius to raising an army against Caracalla, "a king of Britain".
However i find this mocking unprofessional, as it is unlikely Geoffrey would have been referring to Caracalla.
Mediaeval legend
however, he sails around Britain stirring up unrest and raises an army against Bassianus, the historical Caracalla, here a king of Britain.
Quite simply, Caracalla "was" King of Britain, as Britain in 217 AD was still under Roman occupation, and Caracalla was the Roman emperor.
But not only that, Carausius died in 293 AD, and Caracalla was assassinated in 217 AD, and it is unlikely that Geoffrey of Monmouth would be unaware of this, and therefore it is more likely that the Bassianus referred to by Geoffrey, is not the same Bassianus as Caracalla from 217 AD.
Caracalla (/ˌkærəˈkælə/ KARR-ə-KAL-ə;[2] 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), was Roman emperor from 198 to 217.
Link for photo
Roman emperor, Egyptian pharoah & King of Britain, Caracalla
Now it just gets more unbelievable.
Apparently the fanciful Geoffrey has Allectus come along and overthrowing Carausius and setting himself up as king in his place.
Mediaeval legend
Carausius defeats Bassianus by persuading his Pictish allies to desert him in exchange for grants of land in Scotland and sets himself up as king. Hearing of Carausius's treachery, the Romans send Allectus to Britain with three legions. Allectus defeats Carausius, kills him, and sets himself up as king in his place.[35]
Romano-British usurper:
Well, even contemporary history agrees with Geoffrey's version of history.
Allectus (died 296) was a Roman-Britannic usurper-emperor in Britain and northern Gaul from 293 to 296.[1]
Link for photo
Allectus coins
Duke of Cornwall:
Once more, historians make out Geoffrey's accounts of the Roman siege of Allectus as fanciful, even claiming that Asclepiodotus was involved in this.
Geoffrey of Monmouth included Allectus in his legendary History of the Kings of Britain (ca. 1136). Here, Allectus is an officer sent with three legions by the Romans to depose Carausius, a native British king. He does so, but his rule proves oppressive, and he is in turn deposed by Asclepiodotus, here the Duke of Cornwall. The last of Allectus's troops are besieged in London, and surrender on the condition they are granted safe passage out of Britain. Asclepiodotus agrees, but the surrendering soldiers are massacred, and their heads thrown into the river Galobroc, by his allies the Venedoti.[6]
Liberator Britanno:
Yet, the actual contemporary accounts of Constantiniuses reconquest of Britain, are almost word for word the same as Geoffrey of Monmouth's.
The only thing that is missing, is Asclepiodotus being the Duke of Cornwall.
But Geoffrey probably included this, because that is likely exactly who Asclepiodotus was, amongst other things.
Geoffrey may know additional information that the Romans do not, as Geoffrey will know more about British history than the Romans, who will know more about Italian history.
Constantius launched an invasion to depose him in September 296. His forces sailed in several divisions. Constantius led one division from Bononia, but seems to have been delayed by bad weather. Another division, under the praetorian prefect Asclepiodotus, took advantage of fog to avoid Allectus's ships stationed at the Isle of Wight, and landed near Southampton Water, where they burnt their ships. Allectus's forces were forced to retreat from the coast, but were cut off by another of Constantius's divisions and defeated. Allectus himself was killed in the battle, having removed all insignia in the hope that his body would not be identified. Archaeology suggests that Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester) was the site of his defeat or the area surrounding the town.[3] A group of Roman troops, who had been separated from the main body by the fog during the channel crossing, caught up with the remnants of Allectus's men, mostly Franks, at Londinium (London), and massacred them. Constantius himself, it seems, did not reach Britain until it was all over, and his panegyrist claims he was welcomed by the Britons as a liberator.[4]
Link for photo
Constantine chlorus
Magnus Maximus:
It just gets worse however.
Apparently Geoffrey and the Welsh traditionists keep getting mixed up with Magnus Maximus.
How silly of them.
Apparently Magnus Maximus is said to have wed Saint Elen and sired a son named Constantine while in Britain.
British legends
Constantius's activities in Britain were remembered in medieval Welsh legend, which frequently confused his family with that of Magnus Maximus, who also was said to have wed a Saint Elen and sired a son named Constantine while in Britain.
Link for photo.jpg)
Magnus Maximus
Wrong time period:
Now, how on earth Geoffrey of Monmouth could have gotten mixed up with Magnus Maximus i have no clue, as Magnus Maximus was from a "completely" different time period.
Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus (Latin: [ˈmaŋnus ˈmaksimus]; Welsh: Macsen Wledig [ˈmaksɛn ˈwlɛdɪɡ]; c. 335–28 August 388) was Roman emperor in the western portion of the Empire from 383 to 388. He usurped the throne from emperor Gratian in 383, through negotiation with emperor Theodosius I.
Wife named Elen? Son named Constantine?
And here is were it quite frankly gets "frightening".
Not even contemporary sources attribute Magnus Maximus to having a wife named Elen, nor a son named Constantine.
So how contemporary historians and scholars think he could have got mixed up with Magnus Maximus, i have no idea.
Fate of family
What exactly happened to Maximus's family after his downfall is not recorded. He is known to have had a wife, who is recorded as having sought spiritual counsel from St. Martin of Tours during his time at Trier. Her ultimate fate, and even her name (but see the Welsh tradition below), have not been preserved in definitive historic records. The same is true of Maximus's mother and daughters, other than that they were spared by Theodosius I.
One of Maximus's daughters may have been married to Ennodius,[16] proconsul Africae (395). Ennodius's grandson was Petronius Maximus, another ill-fated emperor, who ruled in Rome for only 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on 24 May 455. Other descendants of Ennodius, and thus possibly of Maximus, included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21). We also encounter an otherwise unrecorded daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons.[17]
Link for photo_A_king,_possibly_Magnus_Maximus,_holding_a_sceptre.jpg)
Magnus Maximus painting
Constantine was sent by the Roman senate and Coel submitted to him:
Next, Geoffrey is accused of "repeating" the claim that Constantinus was sent to Britain by the Roman senate, and a British king named Coel surrendered to Constantine.
British legends
[50] and Geoffrey of Monmouth repeated the claim in his 1136 History of the Kings of Britain. Geoffrey related that Constantius was sent to Britain by the Senate after Asclepiodotus (here a British king) was overthrown by Coel of Colchester. Coel submitted to Constantius and agreed to pay tribute to Rome, but died only eight days later.
Father of Saint Helena:
I am actually absolutely flabbergasted by this.
What is so unbelievable about suspecting some British kings may have surrendered to Constantine at some point during the war against the Gallic empire?
Apparently Coel Hen was the father of St Helena.
Is it unbelievable he might also have a daughter?
Coel Hen
Coel (Old Welsh: Coil), also called Coel Hen (Coel the Old), is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages. Early Welsh tradition knew of a Coel Hen, a c. 4th-century leader in Roman or Sub-Roman Britain and the progenitor of several kingly lines in Yr Hen Ogledd (the Old North), the Brittonic-speaking part of what is now northern England and southern Scotland.
Later medieval legend told of a Coel, apparently derived from Coel Hen. He was said to be the father of Saint Helena) and through her the grandfather of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great.
Link for photo_Coel.jpg)
Coel Hen
Son named Constantine:
Apparently Geoffrey writes that Constantinius married Coel Hens daughter Saint Helena and had a son named Constantine (whom contemporary historians and scholars appear to believe is actually the son of Magnus Maximus from a completely different time period).
But according to historians and scholars, these claims have "no historical validity" as Constantinius divorced Helena before he went to Britain.
British legends
Constantius married his daughter Helena and became king of Britain. He and Helena had a son, Constantine, who succeeded to the throne of Britain when his father died at York eleven years later.[51] These accounts have no historical validity: Constantius had divorced Helena before he went to Britain.
Link for photo
Constantine and Saint Helena
Saint Helena:
So let us find out if it is infact true, that Constantine divorded Saint Helena before arriving in Britain.
Constantine divorced Saint Helena in 289 AD.
In 289 political developments forced him to divorce Helena). He married Theodora, Maximian's daughter. They had six children:[13]
To begin with, it is not Geoffrey of Monmouth, nor the Welsh historians that have gotten themselves mixed up.
It is modern day historians and scholars that have gotten confused.
They have mistaken Magnus Maximus, with Maximian, who was the Roman emperor which sent Constantine Chlorus to fight Carausius in 288 AD.
There is however nothing to suggest that Constantine had not visited Britain, even if just as a tourist, before this date.
Maximian Constantine etc
In early 288, Maximian appointed his praetorian prefect Constantius Chlorus, husband of Maximian's daughter Theodora, to lead a campaign against Carausius' Frankish allies.
Link for photo.jpg)
Family tree:
But nowhere even in Maximians family tree, does it depict him having a wife named Elen, nor a son named Constantine.
Infact, it even has Constantinius being a cousin of his, and a person named Constantine being the son of a woman named Helena and Constantinius.
Family tree
Family tree
Link for photo
In fact, Constantinius's obituary speaks of his son "constantine" being elevated to that of Caesar.
Augustus and death
Although prior to 303 there appeared to be tacit agreement among the Tetrarchs that Constantius's son Constantine and Maximian's son Maxentius were to be promoted to the rank of Caesar once Diocletian and Maximian had resigned the purple,[41]
Link for photo
Constantinius coin
Constantine son of Helena and Constantinius:
And it is actually quite contemporary, that Constantine was indeed the son of Helena and Constantinius.
Constantine the great
Constantine the Great (Latin: Flavius Valerius Constantinus; Ancient Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, romanized: Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine I, was a Roman emperor from AD 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterranea (now Niš, Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Constantius, an Illyrian army officer who became one of the four emperors of the Tetrarchy. His mother, Helena), was Greek and of low birth. Constantine served with distinction under emperors Diocletian and Galerius
Link for photo
Constantine the Great
Contemporary conspiracy theory:
And the fact that Constantine was born in 272 AD, 17 or so years before the invasion of Colchester, would not really mean much.
It would simply mean that Geoffrey is not talking about that invasion.
He is probably referring to a campaign which constantinius was involved in as a young soldier, conducted by one of his Gothic relatives.
Though contemporary scholars and historians do have a conspiracy theory that the Constantines are lying about being related to a high society figure with the surname Goth, and are in fact from humble Roman origins.
Early history
Constantius was born in Dacia Ripensis,[5] a Roman province on the south bank of the Middle Danube – the empire's frontier – with its capital at Ratiaria (modern Archar&action=edit&redlink=1) [bg]).[6][7] He was the son of Eutropius, whom the Historia Augusta claimed to be a nobleman from northern Dardania), in the province of Moesia Superior, and Claudia, a niece of the emperors Claudius Gothicus and Quintillus.[8] Modern historians suspect this maternal connection to be a genealogical fabrication created by his son Constantine I),[9] and that his family was of humble origins.[10]
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Claudius Gothicas
Military campaigns against the Gallic empire:
Of course, Claudius Gothicas was obviously a loyal mercenary, and campaigned against the Gallic empire which included Britain.
Constantinius would have been in his early 20's during this, and would most definitely have been part of the command, rising up the ranks to emperor.
The campaigns of Claudius
[2] He then turned on the Gallic Empire, ruled by a pretender for the past eight years and encompassing Britain, Gaul, and the Iberian Peninsula. He won several victories and soon regained control of Hispania and the Rhone river valley of Gaul.[22] This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.[2]
Saint Helena:
And Saint Helena "maybe" being born in Greece or Asia minor, is also meaningless.
Saint Helena)
Helena, Helena Augusta, or Saint Helena (/ˈhɛlənə/; Greek: Ἁγία Ἑλένη, Hagía Helénē; Latin: Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; c. 246/248 AD – c. 330 AD), was an Empress) of the Roman Empire, and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great. Born outside of the noble classes,[1]#cite_note-Valesiani-2) a Greek, possibly in the Greek city of Drepana, Bithynia in Asia Minor, she became the consort of the future Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and the mother of the future Emperor Constantine the Great.
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Saint Helena
Quite simply, during this period we had Goths and barbarians running riot all over this region.
Aswell as the Heruli.
The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several "Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans and Aegean, attacking by land, and notably also by sea. During this time they reportedly lived near the Sea of Azov.
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Heruli homeland
And of course the Scoloti.
, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
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Scythian comb
Therefore, being born in Greece or Asia minor during this period, in no way whatsoever means you are definitely not related to Gauls or British kings.
In fact, pre roman Gaul included Asia minor.
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Pre Roman Gaul
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture